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Tuesday, 20 February 2018

Geography WAEC Syllabus 2018 - WASSCE Syllabus for Geography Examination

This is the complete Geography WAEC Syllabus for this years WAEC examination. Candidates for WAEC GCE (External) and candidates for WAEC SSCE (Internal) are reminded to use this syllabus to prepare for their examination. Click here "WAEC Syllabus" to get the rest of the subjects.
Geography WAEC Syllabus
We advise that candidates consider getting the WAEC examination time table on time in order to prepare very well for the forth coming examination.
On the second note, if you or any of your class mate have any question(s) regarding WAEC SSCE Result or WAEC exams in general, kindly visit the WAEC FAQ's & A's section of this blog before panicking.  

The importance of this WAEC Syllabus can never be undermined and so it's advisable to stick to your books as well as this syllabus for highlights and concentration areas.

It is also advisable that students becomes aware of the WAEC grading system to know what grade they hope to achieve when the result is finally out.

WAEC Syllabus for Geography

Below is the WAEC Syllabus for this year; kindly make judicious use of it.


This examination syllabus is based on the assumption that not less than four teaching periods
or 2 hours 40 minutes per week will be allocated to the subject during the Senior Secondary
School Course.
The examination will test the candidates’ ability to
(i) understand the concepts of differential character and the spatial relationships of the surface features of the earth;
(ii) understand the concept of man-environment relations (i.e. to examine the life of man within his physical and cultural environments and to explain their interactions);
(iii) acquire a basic knowledge of the nature and functioning of physical and human environments, particularly an understanding of their inter-relationships and the resulting issues;
(iv) organize and formulate principles according to acquired geographical concepts and to apply these principles to interpret and analyse spatial problems in the immediate and wider environments;
(v) develop skills and techniques for accurate, orderly and objective geographical investigations to be carried out both in the classroom and in the immediate environment.
There will be two papers; Paper 1 and Paper 2, both of which must be taken.
PAPER 1: GENERAL GEOGRAPHY, ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. This will be a 2-hour and 40 minutes paper, consisting of two
sections; A and B.
SECTION A: General Geography
This will be a fifty (50) minutes multiple-choice (objective) test consisting of fifty (50) questions drawn to cover the entire Geography syllabus (except elementary surveying). Candidates will be required to attempt all the questions.

SECTION B: Elements of Practical and Physical Geography
This will be a 1 hour and 50 minutes paper, consisting of eight (8) questions, of which candidates are expected to answer four. Question 1 will be a compulsory structured question on map reading and interpretation. Candidates are advised not to spend more than 30 minutes on this question.
Candidates will be expected to bring graduated rulers (both metric and imperial), a complete mathematical set, a piece of string and a simple non- programmable calculator.


This will be a 2-hour essay-type paper, consisting of three sections A, B, and C. Candidates will be required to attempt four questions out of nine, choosing at least one from each section.
SECTION A: Human Geography
This will consist of three essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to
attempt at least one of them.
SECTION B: Regional Geography of Candidates’ Home Country
This will consist of three essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to
attempt at least one of them.
SECTION C: Geography of Africa
This will consist of three essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to
attempt at least one of them.
Map Work
Elementary Surveying
Statistical Maps and Diagrams
Elements of Physical Geography
(i) Rocks
(ii) Major landforms
(iii) Oceans
(iv) Weather and climate
Map reading and interpretation based on a contoured survey map of part of West Africa: scale, measurement
of distances, direction and bearing, map reduction and enlargement, identification of physical features such as
spurs, valleys, etc. and cultural features such as city walls, settlements, communication routes etc.; measurement of gradients, drawing of cross profiles, inter-visibility, description and explanation of drainage, pattern of communication, settlement and land use.
Chain and Prismatic compass, open and closed traverse, avoiding obstacles in the field.
Graphical representation of statistical data: bar graphs, line graphs, flow charts, pie charts, dot maps, proportional circles, density maps, isopleth maps.
The earth as a planet in relation to the sun. Latitude, longitude and time. Structure of the earth (internal and
Types, characteristics, formation and uses.
Mountains, plateau, plains, karst and coastal landforms.
Agencies modify landforms such as weathering, running
water, underground water, wind and waves.
Fieldwork covering local landforms such as coastal
features, drainage features, gullies, etc.
Ocean basins, salinity, ocean currents (causes, types and
effects on the climates of coastlands), water as an
environmental resource.
Simple weather study based on local observation,
description of the Stevenson’s screen and uses of basic
weather instruments e.g. rain gauge, thermometer,
barometer, and wind vane, etc.

(v) Elements of climate
(vi) Soils
(vii) Vegetation
(viii) Aspects of Environmental
(ix) Environmental hazards
(i) World Population
(ii) Settlement
(iii) Transportation
Temperature, pressure, wind and precipitation and the
factors affecting them e.g. altitude, latitude, ocean
currents, land-and-sea breezes, continentality and aspect.
Interpretation of climatic charts and data. Classification
of climate (Greek and Koppen’s). Major types of climate
(Hot climate – equatorial, tropical and desert, temperate
climate – warm and cool). The atmosphere as an
environmental resource.
Definition, local types and characteristics. Factors and
processes of soil formation and soil profile. Tropical soil
types. Importance to man and the effects of human
activities on soil.
Major types (tropical rain-forest, cool temperate
woodland, tropical grassland and temperate grassland);
characteristics, distribution, factors affecting their
distribution, plant communities. Vegetation as an
environmental resource.
Land ecosystem, environmental balance and intervention
within the natural environment.
Soil erosion, drought, desert encroachment, deforestation
and pollution, causes, effects and prevention of each.
Factors and patterns of growth, distribution and
movement; growth rate problems (e.g. Amazon Basin,
N.E. of U.S.A., India, Japan, West Coast of South
Types (rural and urban); patterns and factors affecting
location; growth and size; functions of rural and urban
settlements (e.g. Western Europe, the Middle East and
West Africa).
Types (roads, railways, water, air). Transportation and
economic development (movement of people and
commodities, national and international trade, diffusion
of ideas and technology, national integration); problems
of transportation.

(iv) Manufacturing Industry
(v) World Trade
Types (heavy and light industry); Factors of industrial
location; contributions to Gross National Product
(G.N.P.) and problems.
Factors, major commodities (agricultural, manufactured
goods and mineral products); world trade routes, with
special emphasis on trade between the candidate’s home
country and the outside world.
Nigeria on broad outlines (location, position, size,
political divisions, physical setting, population,
distribution of mineral and power resources, agriculture,
industry and commerce, transportation).
Geographical Regions of Nigeria (Eastern Highlands,
Eastern Scarplands, North-central Highlands, Western
Highlands, Sokoto Plains, Chad Basin, Niger-Benue
Trough, Cross River Basin and Southern Coastlands).
Each of these geographical regions should be treated
under the following sub-headings:-
(i) physical setting;
(ii) peoples and population;
(iii) resources and economic activities;
(iv) transportation;
(v) problems of development.
(a) Size and location (within West Africa),
administrative structure.
(b) Physical environment (geology, relief, drainage,
climate, vegetation and soils).
(c) Population: Size, growth, distribution and density;
age/sex structure; fertility, morbidity and mortality,
(d) Settlements: Origin, types (rural – urban),
characteristics, hierarchy, landuse, urbanisation
processes problems and attempts at solving some
of the problems).
(e) Agriculture: Subsistence (intensive and extensive),
commercial (vegetable, livestock, dairying,
commercial grain); plantation, problems and

(f) Fishing: Inland and ocean (in-shore/off-shore),
methods, types of fish, storage and marketing,
problems and prospects.
(g) Lumbering: Sources of timber, methods of
exploitation, types of species (for internal use and
for export), problems and prospects, conservation.
(h) Mining: Types, distribution, methods of
extraction, problems and prospects.
(i) Manufacturing: Types, distribution, factors
influencing location of industries, problems of
(j) Trade and Commerce: Services, transport
and communication, recreation and tourism,
(k) Energy and Power: Water (Akosombo and
Kpong Hydro-electric Power projects – benefits
and effects), fuelwood and charcoal, Petroleum
and Natural gas (Saltpond), Solar, Wave, Wind
energies (Donkokrom and Kokrobite), Biogas e.g.
cow dung.
(l) Issues of Development and Environmental
Conservation: Rural and regional development,
resource management and conservation,
environmental pollution e.g. air, water, soil,
noise, waste disposal.
Sierra Leone on Broad Outlines
Size and location, physical environment, population and
Primary Economic Activities
Agriculture, fishing, lumbering, mining and quarrying,
relative importance of each activity, problems, prospects
and conservation.
Location of industry, types of industry, problems of
manufacturing industry, Energy and Power, water,
fuelwood and charcoal, biogas (e.g. cow-dung), hydro-
electric power projects e.g. Dodo, Guma, Bumbuna
(under construction).

Transport and Communication
Roads, water, air, the role of transport and
communication in economic development (i.e. movement
of people and commodities) internal and external trade,
diffusion of ideas and technology): problems of transport
and communication.
Trade and Tourism
Major commodities of trade (agricultural, manufactured
goods, minerals, etc.): pattern of trade (internal and
external): problems of trade; development of tourism,
problems of tourism, socio-economic effects of tourism.
(a) Size and location, physical environment – relief,
drainage, climate and vegetation.
(b) Economic activities – Farming (subsistence and
cash crops), fishing, livestock rearing, mining,
problems and prospects.
(c) Population – Size, growth, distribution and
(d) Manufacturing – Types, location, factors
influencing location, problems of industrialization.
(e) Transport and Communication – road, water, rail
and air transport – their roles in economic
(f) Tourism – Main tourism areas, factors responsible
for its development, problems and economic
Fieldwork on any one of the following topics should be
based on local geography of candidate’s home country
(This aspect of the syllabus should be examined by
schools as part of the continuous assessment and should
account for 25% of the total mark allotted to continuous
(i) Land use (rural or urban):
rural – crop farming (e.g. rice, cocoa, etc).,
mining (e.g. coal, tin, petroleum,
etc.) fishing.

urban – commercial activities, ports,
factories, recreational, etc.
(ii) Market survey – rural or urban.
(iii) Traffic flow – rural or urban.
(iv) Patterns of journey to work – rural or urban.
(v) Rate of erosion in the locality, etc.
Africa on broad outlines – location, size, position,
political divisions and associated islands, physical setting
(relief, drainage, climate and vegetation); distribution of
major minerals.
(a) Lumbering in equatorial Africa (with particular
reference to Cote d’Ivoire and Zaire).
(b) Irrigation agriculture in the Nile Basin and the Niger
(c) Plantation agriculture in West and East Africa.
(d) Fruit farming in the Mediterranean Regions of
(e) Gold mining in South Africa.
(f) Copper mining in Zaire and Zambia.
(g) Oil production in Nigeria, Algeria and Libya.
(h) Population distribution in West Africa.
(i) International Economic Co-operation in West Africa
(e.g. ECOWAS).

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