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Wednesday, 22 February 2017

Electricity WAEC Syllabus

This is the complete Syllabus for this years WAEC examination. Candidates for WAEC GCE (External) and candidates for WAEC SSCE (Internal) are reminded to use this syllabus to prepare for their examination. Click here "WAEC Syllabus" to get the rest of the subjects.
Electricity WAEC Syllabus
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The importance of this WAEC Syllabus can never be undermined. Hence, it's advisable to stick to your books as well as this syllabus for highlights and concentration areas. It is also advisable that students becomes aware of the WAEC grading system to know what grade they are exactly aiming for.

See also the WAEC exams rules and regulations and how to grow thick skin for it. 

Electricity WAEC Syllabus

Below is the WAEC Syllabus for this year; kindly make judicious use of it.

PREAMBLE

This examination syllabus has been evolved from the Senior Secondary School Electricity curriculum. It is designed to test candidates’ knowledge and understanding of electrical and electronic principles, maintenance and repair of domestic and industrial equipment and safe working procedures. The examination syllabus does not replace the curriculum.

OBJECTIVES

The objective of the syllabus is to test candidates’:
  • knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts and principles of Basic Electricity/Applied Electricity;
  • ability to use tools and equipment in the maintenance and repair of electrical/electronic devices;
  • understanding of the principle of operation and the application of simple electrical/electronic devices;
  • understanding of safe working procedures and safety precautions in domestic and industrial installation.

EXAMINATION SCHEME

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.
PAPER 1:      will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions to be answered in 1 hour for 50 marks.
PAPER 2:      will consist of three sections: Sections A, B and C as follows:
Section A will be compulsory for all candidates.  It will consist of four questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any three.
Section B will be for candidates in Ghana only. It will consist of three questions out of which candidates will be required to answer two.
             Section C will be for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia only.   It will also consist of three questions out of which candidates will be required to answer two.
Thus, candidates will be required to answer five questions in all. The paper will last 1 hour and carry 50 marks.
PAPER  3:     will be a practical paper of two experiments both of which are to be carried out by candidates in 3 hours for 100 marks.

  DETAILED SYLLABUS

SECTION A
(For all candidates)
TOPIC NOTES
  1.      DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUIT THEORY
Structure of matter

Resistors



Conductors and insulators.
Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s laws
Power  and energy

2.      MAGNETIC FIELD AND ELECTROMAGNETISM
Fundamentals of magnetism




Concept of Electric field







Capacitors










Electromagnetic field










Self and Mutual Induction







3.      MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
Moving-coil instrument




Moving-iron instrument


Digital instrument


4.      DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
Binary number


Logic gates







5.      ALTERNATING CURRENT CIRCUIT THEORY  
Generation of e.m.f. in a single turn coil

A.C. quantities



RLC circuits





6.      TRANSFORMERS

Types of transformer


Principles of operation of a transformer

Losses and temperature rise in transformers


Efficiency of transformers

Cooling of transformers


7.      POWER SUPPLY
Power supply units




Rectification


8.      ELECTRICAL MACHINES
A.C. motors (Single phase)



Alternators




A.C. motors (Three phase)




D.C. generators


D.C. motors



9.      ELECTRICAL ENERGY SUPPLY
Generating station




10.  ELECTRICAL WIRING
Electrical installation






Wiring






Protection



Earthing



Maintenance, Fault diagnosis and Repairs





Testing of an installation


General Workshop Safety


 

Qualitative treatment of the structure of atoms in relation to electric current.
Types of resistors.
Resistor colour code.
Resistors in series and parallel.
Power rating of resistors.
Definition, examples and characteristics.
Qualitative treatments only.
Treatment should include calculations.



Types of magnet.
Magnetic properties of materials: magnetic flux, magnetic flux density, permeability, magnetomotive force and reluctance.

Electric field and properties: electric flux, electric flux density, electric field strength, permittivity and dielectric constant, potential gradient.

Comparison between magnetic and electric circuits

Types of capacitor.
Capacitance and dielectric.
Charge on capacitor, relationship between charge and applied voltage of a capacitor.
Application of capacitors.
Voltage rating.
Series and parallel connection.
Energy stored in a capacitor
(E =  QV= CV2): simple calculations.



Magnetic field around a current-carrying conductor.
Fleming’s Right Hand Rule
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field (F = BILsin).

Lenz’s law and Faradays law.
Emf induced in a coil (E = BLVsin)
Simple calculations involving force and
e.m.f. only.


Qualitative treatment of self and mutual induction.
Energy stored in a coil (E =  LI2).
Application of electromagnetism as found in electric bell, security alarm system, solenoid, loudspeaker, buzzer, moving-coil instruments etc.


Construction, advantages and disadvantages.
Conversion of moving-coil instrument to ammeter and voltmeter.
Calculations of shunts and multipliers.


Construction, principles of  operation, advantages and disadvantages.

Multimeter, voltmeter, ammeter etc.
Advantages and disadvantages.



Conversion of decimal numbers to binary numbers and vice versa.

Series connection of switches – AND
gate, parallel connection of switches – OR gate and inverter – NOT gate.
Truth table for logic gates.
General symbols for AND, OR, NOT, NAND and NOR gates.
Boolean expression.




Plotting of labelled sinusoidal waveform for a complete cycle.

A.C quantities (r.m.s., peak and average values, form factor, cycle, period and frequency)

Solution of problems involving RL, RC and RLC series circuits.

Conditions for resonance.
Phasor diagram of series resonance.

Transformer construction

Type based on (i) construction (shell and core) and (ii) function (current and voltage).

Operation and transformation ratio


Transformer losses (copper and iron)
Effect of losses and temperature rise in a transformer. Qualitative treatment only.

Losses and efficiency of transformer

Methods of cooling.
Need for cooling.


Power supply units: dry cell, solar cell, cadium cell and accumulator.
Block diagram of d.c. power supply.
Functions of blocks of power supply.

Half-wave and full-wave rectifications.
Filtration and stabilization.


Types of single phase motor: split-phase, capacitor-start, capacitor-run.
Application of single-phase motors.

Principles of operation, parts and types.
Relationship of speed, number of poles and frequency
f =  (Hz)

Principles of operation, parts, type and application
Methods of starting: direct-on-line, star delta and auto transformer.


Principles of operation, parts and methods of
connecting field windings.

Principles of operation, parts, types (shunt, compound, series) and application.



Methods of generating electrical power: diesel engine, steam engine, hydro-electric, nuclear, gas turbine.



Types of wiring: surface, conduit, trunking, ducting.
Selection of materials, tools and accessories.
Application of IEE wiring regulation regarding domestic installation.


Cables and accessories.
Current-carrying capacity of cable.
Wiring of lighting and socket outlets and connection of plugs.
Conduit, surface, trunking and ducting installations.

Protective devices
Fuses and circuit breakers
Discrimination of protective devices

Reasons for earthing.
Methods of earthing.
Earth loop impedance.

Types of fault: short circuit, open circuit and earth leakage.
Methods of diagnosing and repair of faults in an installation and equipment such as
fluorescent fitting, electric iron, electric fan, blender etc.

Continuity test, insulation resistance test, earth leakage test and polarity test.

Application of electrical safety regulations.



SECTION B

(For candidates in Ghana only)
TOPIC NOTES
  11.  ELECTRON EMISSION
Electron emission



Thermionic emission


Cathode Ray Tube(CRT)


12.  SEMICONDUCTOR
Theory



Diode







Transistor



















13.  COMMUNICATION
Electromagnetic waves

Modulation







Amplifiers



Operational amplifiers


 
Methods of emitting electrons: Thermionic emission, photo emission, secondary emission and field emission.

Functions of electrodes, parameters and application.

Functions of electrodes in CRT.



Properties of semiconductor materials. Differences between n-type and p-type semiconductor materials.

Circuit symbol.
PN junction diode.
Barrier potential.
Forward and reverse bias for a pn junction diode.
Characteristics of a pn diode.
Application of pn junction diode.

Bipolar transistor: two pn junction devices (npn and pnp).
Configuration of bipolar transistor: CC, CB and CE.
Principles of operation and mode of connection of the three configurations of a transistor.
Characteristics of an npn transistor (common emitter).
Unipolar transistor: p-channel and n-channel of field effect transistor (JFET).
Principles of operation of JFET.
Semiconductor devices and their application: diac, triac, SCR, LED and zener diode.
Application of a photo transistor
Integrated circuits: simple integrated circuits and their uses.




Characteristics of radio waves.

Amplitude and frequency modulation and their waveforms.



Advantages of frequency modulation (F.M.) over amplitude modulation (A.M.).

Classifications: class A, class B, class AB and class C.
Application and efficiency of an amplifier.

Properties and construction of an ideal operational amplifier.
Inverting and non-inverting op-amp.

SECTION C

(For candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia)
TOPIC NOTES
  14.  ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

TRANSMISSION



DISTRIBUTION OF
ELECTRICITY

15.  MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF VARIOUS ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
Maintenance

Maintenance and repair of electrical appliances
  Layout diagram of high voltage overhead transmission system.
Treatment of main components (towers, insulators and conductors) and functions. Detailed treatment of components not required.
Operating voltage levels for transmission lines (132 kV and 330 kV) and the need for high voltage system should be emphasized.
Layout diagram and main components of electricity distribution.
Functions of substation components (transformers, feeders etc.)

Types (predictive, preventive and corrective)

Common faults that occur in electrical appliances (blender, electric iron, electric kettle, toaster, fluorescent lamps etc) such as short circuit, open circuit, earth fault etc.

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